|Mongolia of Genghis Khaan, a mythical land
Mongolia is the paradise on the earth, it is a combination of all geography in a vast land of desert, forest, steppe with awesome lights, rare wildlife, unique culture and history. It is a country of Great King, Chinggis Khaan.
The epic tales of the Mongol Empire reached the west in the writings of intrepid travelers, such as the great Venetian merchant Marco Polo and the Franciscan monk G. de Roubruque and still now the Mongol dream feed the western imagination. Present-day Mongolia shut in by he Russian Bear and the Chinese Dragon, is only a small part of the Great Mongol Empire of the 13th and 14th centuries which stretched from the Danube to the yellow river, the largest continuous Empire in the history of the world. Of the 4 millions Mongol?s, only a little more than 2 million people live in the Mongolian People?s Republic, the rest live in Russia and in China, Inner Mongolia, (an autonomous region of the People?s Republic of China largely settled by ethnic Chinese).
The Mongolian People?s Republic or (Outer) Mongolia or Khalkha, sovereign nation, was founded in 192. The Great Wall in the south and lake Baikal (Siberias?s borders) in the north, and it is larger than Britain, France, Germany and Italy together.
Interestingly, Archeological digs have discovered human remains in the Gobi and other regions of Mongolia dating back nearly 500, 000 years. Despite Mongolia?s short summers, wheat growing has co-existed for thousands of years with nomadic herding, which the Mongols took up after they tamed horses, yaks and camels. The name "Mongol" was first recorded by the Chinese during the Tang Dynasty (618-907 AD). At that time Mongolia was dominated by a turkic people called the Uighurs. The Mongols had little inclination to ally with other nomadic peoples of northern Asia.
The Hunnu, a proto-Mongolian tribe, built the first Empire. The Hunnu Empire (3rd century BCE - 1st century CE) played a major role in shaping the social and political structures of Central Asia nomadic tribes. The Hunnu established a strong military-administrative structure, hereditary rule, and the division of the army and the population into units of tens, hundreds and thousands. They conquered various neighboring nomadic tribes and at the zenith of their power they held a vast territory stretching from Turkestan to Mongolia and Siberia. The Hunnu united under Attila (434-453) and terrorized Central Europe in the last days of the Roman Empire.
Pope Innocent IV sent Fra Giovanni Pian Di Carpine (-1180 - 1252) to the Mongols in 1245. He traveled via the ruins of Kiev to the Mongol?s summer camp at Sira Ordu and then covered 3000 miles in 106 days to Karakorum, following the Mongol post system. He had an audience with Guyug Khan and became friends with Cosmos, a Russian goldsmith being held by the Mongols. He was told by the Khan that that if Europe wanted peace then the Pope, all the Kings and Emperors of Europe and "anyone else important" would have to come and see him to earn his good will. He took the less than cheering message back to Europe in mid-winter, arriving two years after the first set out.
From XVI century till begging of XX, Mongolia experienced a harsh life under the rule of Manch Conquerer in Asia. In 1911, China?s Qing Dynasty crumbled. The Mongols quickly saw the opportunity to take back their independence from China, and Mongolia declared it independence on 1 December 1911, with a theocratic government under the leadership of the 8th Jebtzun Damba (Living Buddha).
On 26 November 1924, the Mongolian People?s Republic was declared and Mongolia became the world?s second communist country.
In March 1990, large pro-democracy protests erupted in the square in front of the parliament building in Ulaanbaatar and hunger strikes were held. Things the happened quickly: Batmunkh who was a state leader, lost his power; new political parties sprang up; and hunger strikes and protest continued. Freedom of speech, religion and assembly were all granted. On 30 June 1996, the Mongolian democratic coalition unexpectedly trounced the ruling MPRP, ending 75 years of unbroken communist rule.