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   General Information

General information

Boundaries
Emarkably long frontiers with the Russian Federation and China. Mongolian boundaries with their neighboring two countries; 4.673 km with China and 3.485 km with the Russian Federation.
 
Government of Mongolia
Mongolia is one of the most free country in Asia, and democratic success since 1990's. Mongolia has unicameral parliament elected by Single Member District system with strong government and semi president political system.

State Great Khural (Parliament). Head of the state: President Tsakhia Elbegdorj since 2009, Head of the government Prime Minister S. Batbold since 2009.
 
Independence
1921 final independence from China, 1990 democratic reform and transition from communism to democracy and market oriented economy.

Constitution
1924, 1940,1961, and the first democratic constitution with basic human rights and freedom was enacted in 1992.

Administrative subdivisions
21 aimags (provinces), capital city, plus 3 autonomous cities.

Language
The official and spoken language of the country is Mongolian. Many people speak Russian as their second language as they were taught at school. An increasing number of people are now also speaking English, Germany, Korean, Chinese, Japanese, French and small number of other languages.

Literacy definition
Age 15 and over can read and write total population - 82.9%
male: 88.6%
female: 77.2% (1988 est.)

Mineral output & reserves
Mongolia produces 5 million tonnes of coal (both hard and brown) a year, supplying coal-fired power stations for electricity generation and district heating schemes. Some coal is exported to Russia by rail in exchange for additional electricity. Coal reserves are immense, even by world standards - at least 100 billion tonnes, 20% hard coal and 80% lignite (brown coal). 

Major exports
Copper and molybdenum concentrates fluorspar, cashmere wool, hides, skins and other natural and animal products.

Major imports
Petroleum, industrial equipment, consumer goods 

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